Thyroid and its Diseases

The thyroid is a gland located in our neck, and there are some diseases that are associated with it. Read on to find out more about the disease.

Thyroid is a gland. It is a small organ shaped like a butterfly. It is located in the front of the neck wrapped around the windpipe (trachea). You have glands throughout your body, that creates and release substances that help your body do specific things and the thyroid is a gland that produces hormones that aid in regulating several important bodily functions.

42 million people in India have thyroid disorders and hypothyroidism is the most common of thyroid disorders in India, affecting one in ten adults.

Types of thyroid disease

Thyroid disease is a medical condition that keeps your thyroid from making the right amount of hormones.


When your thyroid gland is overactive and produces too many hormones, it is called hyperthyroidism. This causes many body functions to speed up.

Causes of hyperthyroidism:

  • Excess iodine intake
  • Thyroid gland inflammation
  • Taking too much thyroid hormone medication
  • Overactive thyroid nodules

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism:

  • Restlessness
  • Racing heart rate
  • Anxiety
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Muscle weakness
  • Weight loss
  • Shaking
  • Increased Appetite


In hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland is underactive and is unable to produce enough of its hormones. This causes your body functions to slow down.

Causes of hypothyroidism:

  • Iodine deficiency
  • Thyroiditis
  • Pituitary gland or hypothalamus disorders
  • Medications of heart, cancer, or bipolar disorder

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:

  • Fatigue
  • Memory problems
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Weight gain
  • Slow heart rate
  • Heavy and irregular menstruation
  • Fertility problems

Common Thyroid Problems:

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis - Hashimoto's thyroiditis is also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. The condition occurs when your body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and slowly destroys your thyroid gland and its ability to produce hormones. It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism Women in their middle age are especially susceptible.

Graves' disease - Grave's disease is also an autoimmune disorder in which your body's immune system attacks your thyroid gland which causes your gland to overproduce the hormone responsible for controlling your metabolism. It is hereditary and may develop at any age. It is common in women between the ages of 20-30.

Goiter - Goiter is a noncancerous enlargement of thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of goiter. Goiter can also caused by Grave's disease, thyroiditis, congentinal hypothyroidism.

Thyroid nodules - Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that form within your thyroid gland. Its causes are mostly unknown sometimes it can be iodine deficiency and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

(Disclaimer: The content on this site is for informational purposes only, and should not be taken as professional medical advice.  Always seek the guidance of your doctor or other health professionals for any questions you may have regarding your health or a medical condition.)

Tags : #myhealth #thyroid #thyroiddisease #hyperthyroidism #hypothyroidism #iodinedeficiency #goiter #graves #smitakumar #medicircle

About the Author

Mansi Kamble

I like listening to music, love reading and writing is my passion. Healthcare has always been a curious topic for me. I even watched some medical dramas like Chicago Med & Grey's Anatomy. So, here I am exploring my passion in the field of my interest.

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